MANAGEMENT PAPER





CHAPTER I
PRELIMINARY

A. Background

In an organization or company, the factor of human resources plays an important role in carrying out its activities, because resources play a role in terms of planning, actors and determinants of the realization of organizational goals. Where each organization or company can certainly have one or several objectives that provide direction and unite the elements contained in the organization. The goal to be achieved is a condition that is better than the previous situation.
To achieve these objectives a series of activities is known as the management process, which consists of actions:
Planning, organizing, mobilizing, and controlling, which is carried out to determine and achieve the targets that have been determined through the utilization of human resources and other resources. These actions are interrelated with each other and is the duty of each leader to regulate the people who are in it to carry out various jobs in order to achieve company goals.

B. Identification of Problems


In an organization or company, good cooperation between employees is an important matter. Likewise, cooperation between employees and leaders needs to be continually improved in order to create a harmonious collaboration, where each party understands the rights and obligations, and can cooperate in carrying out company activities. To achieve company goals, leaders who take the initiative to act and are needed produce a consistent work pattern so that it can influence subordinates in solving common problems that are directed towards achieving company goals.
A successful leader is a leader who can modify and identify his leadership style to fit the work situation, including concerning the assessment made by the leader by his subordinates about how he leads.

C. Purpose
The purpose of writing this paper is to find out the meaning, function, and important role of management in an organization ".



       CHAPTER II
        DISCUSSION
1. Definition of Organization
           What does organization mean? organization can be interpreted as a collection of several people who work together to achieve certain goals. Organizations in any form will always be found in everyday life. Organization is an element that is needed in community life for several reasons, such as organizations used to get something that we cannot do alone, by working together individuals can complete tasks that when worked alone will not be achieved, the organization can provide knowledge sustainable and can be an important source of career.
It is appropriate for an organization to produce something useful for members of the organization and society so that the organization is able to maintain their survival. In general, organizations are divided into two forms, first profit-oriented organizations such as companies that provide goods or services (both large and small) and then non-profit or non-profit oriented organizations such as foundations, museums, government-owned hospitals, schools, social gatherings and others.
Whatever form of organization is needed efforts to manage activities and people as well as other elements within the organization to achieve goals better.

2. Understanding of Management


         All forms of organization where people work together achieve their intended goals, need management. Management is needed by the organization so that efforts to achieve goals become easier. Management is the process of activities through other people to achieve a certain goal and carried out sequentially towards a goal.

 Specifically, there are three main reasons for management needs in organizations, namely:

1. Achieve goals, management facilitates the achievement of organizational and personal goals.
2. Maintaining a balance between conflicting goals, management balances conflicting goals and              activities between stakeholders in the organization (stakeholders) such as owners, employees,              consumers, suppliers and others.
3. Achieving efficiency and effectiveness, efficiency and effectiveness are measures of                            organizational performance.

3. OPINION OF EXPERTS ABOUT MANAGEMENT

1. According to George .R. Teryy Management as an art in completing work through other people.
Management is a typical process, which consists of actions, planning, organizing, mobilizing and monitoring that will be carried out to determine and achieve goals that have been established through the use of human resources and other sources.

2. According to John D. Millet in the book Management in the public service, management's understanding: "The process of directing and facilitating the work of people organized in a desired end" (management is the process of guiding and giving facilities to the work of people people who are organized in formal groups to achieve a desired goal).

3. According to James A.F.Stones and Charles Wankel, management is a process of planning, organizing, leadership, and controlling the efforts of members of the organization and using all organizational resources to achieve the stated goals.

4. According to Paul Hersey and Kennet H. Bowchard limits management as an effort that is done with and with individuals or groups to achieve organizational goals.

5. According to H.B.Siswanto management is art and science in planning, organizing, motivating and judging people and working mechanisms to achieve goals.

6. According to Prof.Dr.H.ARIFIN ABDULRACHMAN in the book "basic management frameworks" can be interpreted: a. Activities / activities

process, namely activities in the sequence sequence
c.insitut / people who carry out activities or process activities.

7. According to T.H Handoko management is working with people to determine, interpret, and achieve organizational goals in the implementation of the functions of planning, organizing, preparing personnel, directing, leadership and supervision.

8. According to the ORDWAY TEAD adapted by DRS.HE. ROSYIDI in the book ‘organization and management" definition of management is "the process and activities of implementing the business lead and show the direction of the organization of the task in realizing the goals that have been set".

9. According to "MARRY PARKER FOLLET", management as an art in completing work through other people ".

10. Koontz and Dannel (1972) "Management is done through the effectiveness of other people" management is the implementation of work through other people.

11. Millet (1954) "management is the process of directing and facilitating the work of informal organizational people group to achive a desire goal" management is the process of leading and launching work from people organized formally as a group to achieve the goals want it.

Davis (1951) management is the fuction of the executive leadership any where (management is a function of every executive leadership anywhere). Kimball and Kimbal (1951) "Management embraces all are tested and made that play to the promotion of necessary is to work and the selection of the principal office "(management consists of all tasks and functions which include the preparation of a company, financing, determination of the outline of policy, provision of all necessary equipment and preparation of the organizational framework and selection of the acting officials.

4. Management Function
The four management functions as the main tasks that must be carried out by a manager in managing the organization to achieve the goal, known as the management process, are as follows:

1. Planning (planning).
The process for determining the goals to be achieved as well as the steps that must be taken to achieve them, including setting goals, formulating objectives, establishing strategies, making strategies, and developing sub-plans to coordinate activities.

2. Organizing (organizing).
The process of assigning tasks, allocating resources and organizing activities in a coordinated manner to each individual and group to implement the plans that have been made, including the determination of where decisions will be made, who will carry out the tasks and jobs, and who will work for whom.

3. Lead (leading)
The process fosters enthusiasm for employees to work well and guide them to carry out activities according to plan in order to achieve goals, inspire and motivate employees to strive to achieve organizational goals.

4. Control (controlling).
The process of measuring performance, comparing the actual results with plans that have been made and taking corrective actions that are needed.


  • The role of management

Every company has management that holds various important roles that determine success in achieving the goals set to be realized together. There are many roles that managers must play / play in a balanced manner so that the right people are needed to carry out these roles.
Good management must play a role in accordance with the situation and conditions of the company or organization. Management who cannot carry out roles according to company demands can bring failure.

The following are the Management Roles that Managers must play:
1. Interpersonal role
   That is the relationship between the manager and the people around him, including;
- Figurehead / Leader Symbol: As a symbol in company events.

- Leader / Leader: Become a leader who motivates employees / subordinates and overcomes problems that arise.

- Liaison / Liaison: Become a liaison with internal and external parties.

2. Information role
Is the role in regulating information owned both from within and outside the organization, including;

- Monitor / Monitor: Oversee, monitor, follow, collect and record events or events that occur either directly or indirectly.

- Disseminator / Spreader: Spread information obtained to people in the organization.

- Spokeperson / Spokesperson: Represents the unit he leads to outside parties.

3. Decision Making Roles
Is the role in making decisions both self-determined and those produced with other parties, including;

- Entrepreneur / Entrepreneurship: Creating creative and innovative ideas and creations to improve work unit performance.
- Disturbance Handler / Problem Solver: Finding a solution and the best solution for every problem that arises.

- Resource Allicator / Resource Allocator: Determines who receives resources and the amount of resources.
- Negotiator / Negotiator: Conduct negotiations with internal and external parties for the benefit of work units or companies.
 Management facilities
To achieve the predetermined goals, tools are needed. Tools are a condition of an effort to achieve the results set. These tools are known as 6M, namely men, money, materials, machines, methods, and markets.

Man refers to human resources owned by the organization. In management, the human factor is the most decisive. Humans who make goals and humans also do the process to achieve goals. Without humans there is no work process, because basically humans are work creatures. Therefore, management arises because there are people who work together to achieve goals.

Money or Money is one element that cannot be ignored. Money is a medium of exchange and a measure of value. The size of the results of activities can be measured by the amount of money circulating in the company. Therefore money is an important tool for achieving goals because everything must be calculated rationally.

This will relate to how much money must be provided to finance labor salaries, the tools needed and must be purchased as well as what results will be achieved from an organization.

Material consists of semi-finished material (raw material) and finished material. In the business world to achieve better results, other than humans who are experts in their fields must also be able to use materials / materials as a means. Because material and human beings cannot be separated, without material the desired results will not be achieved.

Machine or machine is used to provide convenience or generate greater profits and create work efficiency.

The method is a procedure for work that facilitates the work of the manager. A method of daat is expressed as the determination of how the work is carried out a task by providing various considerations to the target, available facilities and use of time, as well as money and business activities. Keep in mind though that the method is good, whereas people who carry it out do not understand or have no experience, the results will not be satisfactory. Thus, the main role in the permanent management of its own people.

Market or market is a place where organizations disseminate (market) their products. Marketing the product is of course very important because if the goods produced are not sold, the production process of goods will stop. It means that the work will not be proceeded. Therefore, market control in the sense of spreading production results is a decisive factor in the company. In order for the market to be mastered, the quality and price of goods must be in accordance with consumer tastes and consumer purchasing power.


  •  Principles of management

The principles in management are flexible in the sense that they need to be considered according to specific conditions and changing situations. According to Henry Fayol, a originator of management theory from France, the general principles of management consist of:

1. Division of work (Division of work)
2. Authority and responsibility (Authority and responsibility)
3. Discipline (Discipline)
4. Unity of command (Unity of command)
5. Unity of direction
6. Prioritizing the interests of the organization above its own interests
7. Employee payroll
8. Centralization
9. Hierarchy (level)
10. Order (Order)
11. Justice and honesty
 12. Stability of employee conditions
      13. Initiative
      14. The spirit of unity, the spirit of the corps



           CONCLUSION

           Once the importance of the role of management in the organization, it was concluded that an organization must have a good management, because management is very important for the smooth running of an organization. Likewise Eran Manager is very useful in an organization. The manager manages the course of all management, and makes the management agenda well-structured and good, the function of the manager is very useful in the organization. Managers must also be able to adjust to the organization, because the manager plays an important role in an organization that he founded. Therefore the role of Management and Managers in an Organization is very necessary.

No comments:

Post a Comment